One of Raman's best known applications is the identification of mineralogical phases. Raman spectroscopy is a NON-DESTRUCTIVE technique, which is an important factor, because it does not compromise the appearance of the sample and does not affect the possibility of further analysis.

About us

We are a team of graduates in Earth Sciences, chemical experts and mineral collectors with different experiences and ages: some of us are already "Ramanists" and we are all collectors of minerals with a focus on micro collection; our head office is in Padua.

We have always felt the need to answer the questions associated with the interpretation of labels on our samples and now we are able to make a leap forward in the identification of mineralogical species. We are happy to share this experience with mineralogy enthusiasts.

About our work

The mineralogical samples sent by collectors (Important technical informations) are analysed using a micro-Raman-dedicated spectrometer (Working Tools) which returns a spectrum (Some theory) containing useful information for the identification of the mineral phase. This phase is identified by comparing the spectrum of the sample analysed with a reference spectrum and, if necessary, with the information provided by scientific literature. The result of the spectrum analysis is sent to the collector as a digital report (Example), containing:

  • - the spectrum of the analysed sample;
  • - the spectrum of the reference sample (if possible);
  • - the result of the identification of the sample (if possible) accompanied by the percentage of similarity (called matching) with the reference spectrum (Example).
After being analysed, samples are returned to the collector with numerical analysis reports and rough Raman spectra.
We can also conduct a thorough study on samples from a single location, so you can get a lot of useful data to do a localised study, even for a scientific publication.

As we know, a mineralogical species is identified by the combination of different analytical techniques, but, in many cases, Raman micro-spectroscopy is already sufficient.

Working tools

Our Raman micro-spectroscopy equipment meets the requirements of today's highest quality standards. We have a Raman XploRA™ PLUS (HORIBA Scientific) confocal microscope, equipped with a green laser (wavelength of 532 nm, which is more versatile for mineralogical samples) and with Olympus 10X, 50X long working distance and 100X lenses, which allows us to obtain a high spatial resolution (<1 μm).
This tool has a motorized goniometric cradle along the X-Y-Z axes with micrometric movement that can be operated remotely. The image is captured by the 3.1 mp CMOS camera directly connected to the computer 23" monitor. The Raman spectrum is acquired by a CCD detector and the spectral resolution can be modified thanks to the presence of four monochromators (diffraction gratings of 600 gr/mm, 1200 gr/mm, 1800 gr/mm, 2400 gr/mm). The acquisition and processing of the Raman spectrum is managed via LabSpec 6 software. Identification of the mineralogical phases is done using CrystalSleuth software (Laetsch et Downs, 2006) and, in some cases, using the information provided by scientific literature.

For more details:


Laetsch T., Downs R. (2006) Software for identification and refinement of cell parameters from powder diffraction data of minerals using the RRUFF Project and American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Databases. Abstracts from the 19th General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association, Kobe, Japan, 23-28 July 2006

Image from HORIBA.

Some theory

Raman spectroscopy is a technique for the analysis of materials based on the Raman effect (or Raman scattering), described by Indian physicist Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888 - 1970), awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics. The Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon hitting an object (incident radiation) and is caused by the interaction between the photons and the molecular vibrations of the object. In other words, when an object is hit by a beam of light, in addition to scattering the light radiation with the same wavelength of the incident wave (elastic scattering), it also diffuses the light with wavelengths shorter or longer than the original one, because of the exchange of energy between the photons and the molecule involved (the Raman effect).
According to the principle of Raman spectroscopy, a monochromatic light beam (usually a laser) hits the object to be analysed and the scattered radiation is decomposed in its wavelengths by a monochromator. The result of this decomposition is a Raman spectrum (which usually provides the values of the difference in the number of waves expressed in cm-1, between the observed radiation and the incident radiation) which contains information on the chemical composition and the molecular structure of the analysed substance.
In mineralogy, Raman spectra are used to identify the mineral (qualitative analysis) compared to the reference spectra reported in the literature.
A Raman spectrometer consists of:

  • A laser source which can have different wavelengths (usually 514 nm, 532 nm, 632 nm, 785 nm);
  • A sampling system (a microscope used in Raman micro-spectroscopy) that sends the laser beam to the sample and collects the Raman signal;
  • A monochromator;
  • A detector.
This device is used by a software system for instrument management and data management and processing.

Sample analysis: some indications

Samples to be analysed must be accompanied by an authorisation/shipping form (link to the section) by which the collector specifies the number of samples, their origin and provides a brief description of the minerals to be analysed. Samples must meet the following requirements:

  • Samples must have a maximum dimension so that they can be placed in a container with a maximum size of 32 x 27mm pour la base for the base and a maximum height of 18mm (series 32 boxes marketed by Sicher);
  • Crystals must be duly marked by means of arrows;
  • Loose (even broken) crystals can be sent in special containers (such as medicine capsules, or mini boxes); crystals should be as clean and free as possible from the matrix so that the Raman spectrum is little or nothing affected by the background and/or other foreign crystals;
  • Individual containers must be identified by a label with your data, the initials of the sample, the site of origin, as well as other optional data;
  • Remember: the higher the quality of the crystals, the better the spectrum;
  • In the accompanying letter you must specify whether you want the sample to be returned.
Download the template and fill out the required fields  Authorisation/sample shipping form 
Please send your samples in the most convenient way for you attaching the authorisation/shipping form to the following address:
Mr TOSATO FABIO Via A. Cantele n.15 - 35129 PADOVA (PD) - Italy
mobile +39 335 8109195 e-mail : tosato.fabio@libero.it

Please note

In many cases, Raman micro-spectroscopy analysis is sufficient to identify the mineral phase with a reasonable degree of certainty; if you want to increase the degree of certainty, further analysis with other techniques (such as SEM-EDS, FT-IR, X-ray diffractometry, etc.) is necessary because only the combination of multiple analytical methods leads to highly reliable results.
In any case, the Raman micro-spectroscopy analysis is very useful because:

  • It is NOT DESTRUCTIVE and preserves the sample for further analysis by other methods;
  • It provides useful information for identifying a location being investigated;
  • It allows us to make a first "selection" of the collected samples in order to better direct subsequent analyses;
  • The file is always provided in .txt format, as the comparison databases are always being updated and what could not be identified today will be identified in the future, without carrying out a new Raman analysis.


If you want, you can also create your database and try to interpret the spectra.
From the RRUFF website, you can download software and a large database of thousands of spectra to compare them with the spectra provided by us.
RRUFF Zipped data files
RRUFF about software


We can photograph your samples with a photographic system that consists of: digital SLR camera + Luminar 16mm lens + image processing with Helicon program:


Privacy - Policy


Following the consultation of this website and use of the services offered by it, some information that is directly or indirectly referable to you may be processed and used in accordance with the principles set forth in (EU) Regulation 679/16, as illustrated in the “GDPR and privacy policies” section.

Navigation data
The computer systems and software procedures used to operate this website acquire, during their normal operation, some personal information whose transmission is implicit in the use of Internet communication protocols. Even if this information is not collected to be associated to identified interested users, it could, through processing and association with data held by third parties, lead to users identification. This data category includes:
– internet protocol addresses (IP addresses);
– type of browser and device parameters used by users that connect to the website;
– name of the internet service provider (ISP);
– date and time of visit;
– visitors original source (referral) and exit page;
– number of clicks.
This data is used only to obtain anonymous statistical information on the use of the website and to check its correct functioning and is deleted immediately after processing. Personal data could be used for the determination of liability in the event of hypothetical cyber-crime against the website: in all other cases, data on web contacts are retained for no more than seven days.

Data Provided Voluntarily By The User
This website contains email addresses and other contact details, as a data collection form for information. Using the contact form or sending, optionally, explicitly and voluntarily, emails to the addresses indicated on this website results in the subsequent acquisition of the address and personal data provided by users, in order to reply to and manage requests. Personal data will be stored for the period of time necessary to provide the requested service, and for a further period of time in order to guarantee the protection of rights or enforcement of obligations in legal disputes, as processed data can be considered as evidence (for the duration of the prescription).
This website uses cookies issued by the data CONTROLLER or by third parties, for the purpose of better functioning and guaranteeing third party services.

  • Cookies issued by the data CONTROLLER

Cookies issued by the data CONTROLLER are “technical” cookies and are those used for the sole purpose of "carrying out the transmission of a communication over an electronic communication network, or to allow providers of an information society service explicitly requested by the subscriber or user to provide this service". They are not used for any other purpose, and are installed with normal navigation of our pages. They include navigation or session cookies, which guarantee the normal navigation and use of the website (to allow users, for example, to make a purchase or ensure authentication and access to restricted areas); functionality cookies, which  allow users to navigate the website according to a set of selected criteria (for example, language, products selected for purchase, etc.) in order to improve the service provided. The installation of such cookies does not require the prior consent of users, but only the provision of this information pursuant to article 13 of Regulation 679/16.

  • Third-party cookies for statistical or technical purposes

While using the Website, Users may also receive cookies from Suppliers ("Third-Party Cookies"), this is because the website visited may contain elements that reside on servers other than the one on which the requested page is located.
The data Controller uses third-party cookies only for technical purposes, such as cookies issued to statistically analyse accesses/visits to the website (the so-called "analytical" cookies), or to allow the use of parts of code issued by third parties, which guarantee a better use of the service (authentications, administration pages, etc.).
The third-party cookies used on this website and the methods used to manage opt-outs are indicated below:
- Google Analytics: a web traffic analysis service provided by Google, Inc. (“Google”). These cookies are used for the sole purpose of monitoring and improving the website performance. For more information, please refer to the following link: https://www.google.it/policies/privacy/partners/
Users can selectively disable the action of Google Analytics by installing, on their browser, the opt-out component provided by Google. To disable Google Analytics, please refer to the following link: https://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout
- Google Maps: these cookies are used to incorporate the map generated by this service on the web page. For more information, please read the Google Maps privacy policy.
Apart from the information relating to navigation data, users are free to provide their personal data, in particular the data to be entered in the contact form on the website. However, failure to provide such data may make it impossible to get the service requested.

The data controller does not disseminate personal data of data subjects.
However, the processing of data may involve the disclosure or transfer of data to third parties, such as employees or collaborators of the Data Controller in charge of processing, who will be adequately trained, with particular reference to the implementation of adequate security measures, in order to guarantee the confidentiality and security of the data. In any case, only personal data required for the performance of their specific functions will be disclosed to them.
In carrying out the data processing activities described in this notice, the Data Controller may also cooperate with third parties appointed as Data Processors, that undertake, as per contracts, to ensure compliance with the current legislation in place to protect personal data of the data subjects and to implement all the security measures necessary for adequate protection of data of the data subjects.
If requested, the Data Controller may collaborate with any court, administrative authority, police authority, or other similar authorities in any investigation or proceeding concerning a Data Subject or his/her use of the Website. This may involve, upon request, the disclosure of information on communications sent through the services offered by the Website to such Authorities.
Personal data provided by users by filling in the contact form will not be transferred to a third country within the European Union or to an international organisation, unless in compliance with the applicable legal provisions.
Processing takes place with procedures suitable for protecting the confidentiality of data, and includes its collection, registration, organisation, storage, query, processing, modification, selection, extraction, comparison, use, interconnection, blocking, communication, cancellation, destruction, as well as the combination of two or more of the aforementioned activities. Personal data is processed with computer and electronic systems and stored taking all the necessary security measures, in accordance with the provisions of current legislation, in order to reduce the risk of destruction or loss, even accidental, of data, unauthorised access, or processing not allowed or not in accordance with the set purposes of collection. The security measures will be modified, over time, to comply with legal provisions.
The data voluntarily provided by filling in the Contact form is processed at the headquarters of the Data Controller, and in any other place where the parties involved in the processing activities are located.
Data subjects can exercise certain rights with reference to the Data processed by the Data Controller. In particular, Data Subjects have the right to:
•             withdraw their consent at any time. Users may withdraw their consent to the processing of Personal Data previously expressed.
•             object to the processing of their Data. Users may object to the processing of their Data when it takes place on a legal basis other than their consent. Further details on this right are provided in the section below.
•             access their Data. Users have the right to obtain information on the Data processed by the Data Controller, on certain aspects of the processing activities and to receive a copy of the Data processed.
•             check and obtain Data rectification. Users may verify the correctness of their Data and obtain its updating or correction.
•             obtain data processing purpose limitation. Under some specific conditions, Users may obtain data processing purpose limitation. In this case, the Data Controller will not process their Data for any other purpose than its storage.
•             obtain the cancellation or removal of their Personal Data. Under some specific conditions, Users may obtain the cancellation of their Data by the Data Controller.
•             receive their data or transfer it to another data controller. Users have the right to receive personal data they have provided to a controller in a structured, commonly used and machine readable format, and, if technically feasible, to get it transferred to another data controller. This provision is applicable when the Data is processed by automated tools and data processing was authorised by the User, based on a contract in which the User is a party or on its contractual provisions.
•             lodge a complaint. Users may lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority and also obtain a judicial remedy.

To exercise their rights, Users can send a request to the Data Controller, TOSATO FABIO, email address: tosato.fabio@libero.it specifying their needs and requests.